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View reference Peng SL. Instruments Clinical Instruments Research Instruments. Spectrum Viewer. Panel Designer. Download TDS. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa , Tamang , Qiang , Sherpa , and Lhoba peoples and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people.
The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories.
The bulk of western and central Tibet Ü-Tsang was often at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa , Shigatse , or nearby locations.
The eastern regions of Kham and Amdo often maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while also often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo ; most of this area was eventually incorporated into the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and Qinghai.
The current borders of Tibet were generally established in the 18th century. The region subsequently declared its independence in without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government.
The region maintained its autonomy until when, following the Battle of Chamdo , Tibet was occupied and incorporated into the People's Republic of China , and the previous Tibetan government was abolished in after a failed uprising.
There are tensions regarding Tibet's political status  and dissident groups that are active in exile. The economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture , though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades.
The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism ; in addition there is Bön , which is similar to Tibetan Buddhism,  and there are also Tibetan Muslims and Christian minorities.
Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art , music , and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Chinese and Indian influences.
Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley , yak meat, and butter tea. In the Middle-Chinese language spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H.
The English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century. Linguists generally classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries between 'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear.
According to Matthew Kapstein :. From the perspective of historical linguistics, Tibetan most closely resembles Burmese among the major languages of Asia.
Grouping these two together with other apparently related languages spoken in the Himalayan lands, as well as in the highlands of Southeast Asia and the Sino-Tibetan frontier regions, linguists have generally concluded that there exists a Tibeto-Burman family of languages.
More controversial is the theory that the Tibeto-Burman family is itself part of a larger language family, called Sino-Tibetan , and that through it Tibetan and Burmese are distant cousins of Chinese.
The language has numerous regional dialects which are generally not mutually intelligible. It is employed throughout the Tibetan plateau and Bhutan and is also spoken in parts of Nepal and northern India, such as Sikkim.
In general, the dialects of central Tibet including Lhasa , Kham , Amdo and some smaller nearby areas are considered Tibetan dialects.
Other forms, particularly Dzongkha , Sikkimese , Sherpa , and Ladakhi , are considered by their speakers, largely for political reasons, to be separate languages.
Tibetan is also spoken by approximately , exile speakers who have fled from modern-day Tibet to India and other countries. Although spoken Tibetan varies according to the region, the written language, based on Classical Tibetan , is consistent throughout.
This is probably due to the long-standing influence of the Tibetan empire, whose rule embraced and extended at times far beyond the present Tibetan linguistic area, which runs from northern Pakistan in the west to Yunnan and Sichuan in the east, and from north of Qinghai Lake south as far as Bhutan.
Starting in , the local deaf sign languages of Tibet were standardized, and Tibetan Sign Language is now being promoted across the country.
Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least 21, years ago. The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet.
Prior to Songtsen Gampo , the kings of Tibet were more mythological than factual, and there is insufficient evidence of their existence.
He also brought in many reforms, and Tibetan power spread rapidly, creating a large and powerful empire.
It is traditionally considered that his first wife was the Princess of Nepal, Bhrikuti , and that she played a great role in the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet.
Under the next few Tibetan kings, Buddhism became established as the state religion and Tibetan power increased even further over large areas of Central Asia , while major inroads were made into Chinese territory, even reaching the Tang 's capital Chang'an modern Xi'an in late The Kingdom of Nanzhao in Yunnan and neighbouring regions remained under Tibetan control from to , when they turned on their Tibetan overlords and helped the Chinese inflict a serious defeat on the Tibetans.
In , the hold of Tibet was loosened by the campaign of general Gao Xianzhi , who tried to re-open the direct communications between Central Asia and Kashmir.
By , the Tibetans had lost almost all of their central Asian possessions to the Chinese. However, after Gao Xianzhi's defeat by the Arabs and Qarluqs at the Battle of Talas and the subsequent civil war known as the An Lushan Rebellion , Chinese influence decreased rapidly and Tibetan influence resumed.
At its height in the 's to 's the Tibetan Empire reached its highest glory when it ruled and controlled a territory stretching from modern day Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan.
A bilingual account of this treaty, including details of the borders between the two countries, is inscribed on a stone pillar which stands outside the Jokhang temple in Lhasa.
The period that followed is known traditionally as the Era of Fragmentation , when political control over Tibet became divided between regional warlords and tribes with no dominant centralized authority.
An Islamic invasion from Bengal took place in One of the department's purposes was to select a dpon-chen 'great administrator' , usually appointed by the lama and confirmed by the Mongol emperor in Beijing.
Mongol rule of Tibet remained separate from the main provinces of China, but the region existed under the administration of the Yuan dynasty.
If the Sakya lama ever came into conflict with the dpon-chen , the dpon-chen had the authority to send Chinese troops into the region.
Tibet retained nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative  rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention.
This existed as a " diarchic structure" under the Yuan emperor, with power primarily in favor of the Mongols. The following 80 years saw the founding of the Gelug school also known as Yellow Hats by the disciples of Je Tsongkhapa , and the founding of the important Ganden , Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa.
However, internal strife within the dynasty and the strong localism of the various fiefs and political-religious factions led to a long series of internal conflicts.
In they were overthrown by the Tsangpa Dynasty of Shigatse which expanded its power in different directions of Tibet in the following decades and favoured the Karma Kagyu sect.
The 5th Dalai Lama is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism , after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war.
His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Güshi Khan , the Oirat leader of the Khoshut Khanate. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state.
This Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang. According to the mythology of the time, there would be in Tibet "many Christians" and "churches richly ornamented with images of Our Lord Jesus Christ and of Our Lady".
The Portuguese missionary spoke Persian, the literary and commercial language of the region. The missionary also noted that "the majority of the population was very welcoming".
Even so, there were "numerous flocks of sheep, goats and horses" and "there was no lack of meat or butter". Qing dynasty rule in Tibet began with their expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars.
Amdo came under Qing control in , and eastern Kham was incorporated into neighbouring Chinese provinces in In the Ambans and the majority of the Han Chinese and Manchus living in Lhasa were killed in a riot , and Qing troops arrived quickly and suppressed the rebels in the next year.
Like the preceding Yuan dynasty, the Manchus of the Qing dynasty exerted military and administrative control of the region, while granting it a degree of political autonomy.
The Qing commander publicly executed a number of supporters of the rebels and, as in and , made changes in the political structure and drew up a formal organization plan.
The Qing now restored the Dalai Lama as ruler, leading the governing council called Kashag ,  but elevated the role of Ambans to include more direct involvement in Tibetan internal affairs.
At the same time the Qing took steps to counterbalance the power of the aristocracy by adding officials recruited from the clergy to key posts.
For several decades, peace reigned in Tibet, but in the Qing Qianlong Emperor sent a large Chinese army into Tibet to push the invading Nepalese out.
This prompted yet another Qing reorganization of the Tibetan government, this time through a written plan called the "Twenty-Nine Regulations for Better Government in Tibet".
Qing military garrisons staffed with Qing troops were now also established near the Nepalese border. In the Sikh Empire invaded and annexed Ladakh , a culturally Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time.
A Qing-Tibetan army repelled the invaders but was in turn defeated when it chased the Sikhs into Ladakh. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Chushul between the Chinese and Sikh empires.
As the Qing dynasty weakened, its authority over Tibet also gradually declined, and by the midth century its influence was minuscule.
Qing authority over Tibet had become more symbolic than real by the late 19th century,     although in the s the Tibetans still chose for reasons of their own to emphasize the empire's symbolic authority and make it seem substantial.
His efforts, while largely unsuccessful, established permanent contact between Tibet and the Western world. In , a British expedition to Tibet , spurred in part by a fear that Russia was extending its power into Tibet as part of the Great Game , was launched.
Although the expedition initially set out with the stated purpose of resolving border disputes between Tibet and Sikkim , it quickly turned into a military invasion.
The British expeditionary force, consisting of mostly Indian troops , quickly invaded and captured Lhasa, with the Dalai Lama fleeing to the countryside.
The Qing imperial resident, known as the Amban , publicly repudiated the treaty, while the British government, eager for friendly relations with China, negotiated a new treaty two years later known as the Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet.
The British agreed not to annex or interfere in Tibet in return for an indemnity from the Chinese government, while China agreed not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.
In , the Qing government sent a military expedition of its own under Zhao Erfeng to establish direct Manchu-Chinese rule and, in an imperial edict, deposed the Dalai Lama, who fled to British India.
Zhao Erfeng defeated the Tibetan military conclusively and expelled the Dalai Lama's forces from the province. His actions were unpopular, and there was much animosity against him for his mistreatment of civilians and disregard for local culture.
After the Xinhai Revolution —12 toppled the Qing dynasty and the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet, the new Republic of China apologized for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama's title.
During this time, Tibet fought Chinese warlords for control of the ethnically Tibetan areas in Xikang and Qinghai parts of Kham and Amdo along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.
The Chinese government denounced the agreement as illegal. When in the s and s the regents displayed negligence in affairs, the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of China took advantage of this to expand its reach into the territory.
Emerging with control over most of mainland China after the Chinese Civil War , the People's Republic of China incorporated Tibet in and negotiated the Seventeen Point Agreement with the newly enthroned 14th Dalai Lama 's government, affirming the People's Republic of China's sovereignty but granting the area autonomy.
Subsequently, on his journey into exile, the 14th Dalai Lama completely repudiated the agreement, which he has repeated on many occasions.
The Dalai Lama had a strong following as many people from Tibet looked at him not just as their political leader, but as their spiritual leader.
Afterwards, the Central People's Government in Beijing renounced the agreement and began implementation of the halted social and political reforms.
In , General Secretary and reformist Hu Yaobang visited Tibet and ushered in a period of social, political, and economic liberalization.
The government halted reforms and started an anti- separatist campaign. All of modern China, including Tibet, is considered a part of East Asia. Tibet has some of the world's tallest mountains, with several of them making the top ten list.
Several major rivers have their source in the Tibetan Plateau mostly in present-day Qinghai Province. Tibet has been called the "Water Tower" of Asia, and China is investing heavily in water projects in Tibet.
The mountain is a holy pilgrimage site for both Hindus and Tibetans. The Hindus consider the mountain to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The Tibetan name for Mt.
Kailash is Khang Rinpoche. Tibet has numerous high-altitude lakes referred to in Tibetan as tso or co. Western passes receive small amounts of fresh snow each year but remain traversible all year round.
Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, where bleak desolation is unrelieved by any vegetation bigger than a low bush, and where wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain.
The Indian monsoon exerts some influence on eastern Tibet. Northern Tibet is subject to high temperatures in the summer and intense cold in the winter.
Cultural Tibet consists of several regions. These include Amdo A mdo in the northeast, which is administratively part of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan.
Kham Khams in the southeast encompasses parts of western Sichuan, northern Yunnan , southern Qinghai and the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region.
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